BEING INFLUENTIAL

One of my strengths is that I get passionate about things. And when you’re passionate about something, people follow you, especially if you can articulate the direction it will take, and the ways that it will mean something to them.

What is 'Influence'?

Influence is the ability to change the actions of others in an intentional way [1]. There are two pathways to influence: power (having authority/influence over others) and the skilful use of influence tactics.  Power takes the form of access over important resources, such as information, or being admired and respected within a company. In contrast, skilful use of influence tactics may take a variety of forms.

Assess your influence skills by completing the Managing, Influencing, and Leading Others Survey.

 

The three most effective tactics for influencing subordinates, peers, and managers are rational persuasion, inspirational appeal, and consultation [2]. Collaborative support is also a useful tactic. Tactics which are usually less effective include pressure, coalition, and legitimating.

  • Rational persuasion involves using logic and facts to show your idea or proposal is feasible and will meet important goals. Rational persuasion is rated by subordinates, peers, and managers as effective. Its a good strategy to use when someone shares your objectives. 

  • Inspirational appeal involves appealing to the person’s values and ideals or seeks to arouse the person's emotions to gain commitment for a request or proposal. This is a good strategy if you know what a person cares about. 

  • Consultation involves asking the person to suggest improvements, or help create the plan for a proposed activity or change. Consultation is important if you need someone's input to make an idea succeed and/or if they have the necessary knowledge.

  • Collaborative support involves offering to provide assistance or necessary resources if the person will carry out a request or approve a proposed change. This can be especially useful if people are really busy or lack self-confidence. 

Strategies which can be more useful for influencing peers (rather than managers) include apprising (explaining how the person doing what you ask will benefit or help them) and ingratiation (using praise and flattery). Ingratiation only works if you can sincere and genuine in your praise. 

Strategies which are less often used by effective leaders include exchange (offering to reciprocate at a later time) and personal appeals (asking someone to do something out of friendship or as a favor). And the less successful strategies - usually rated negatively - are legitimating (focusing on your legitimacy/ authority), pressure (e.g., demands, threats, coercion), and coalition (ganging up, and enlsiting the support of others). Pressure and legitimating can be useful when compliance is necessary, such as in a crisis situation.

 

Why is Being Influential Important?

 

“The truest measure of leadership is influence” – John C. Maxwell

This quote emphasizes how important it is to be able to influence other people’s thinking, behaviours, and actions in order to achieve goals. As an academic, you will need to be a persuasive force to move people in a certain direction. For example, you might have to convince an evaluation panel that your proposal is worthy of funding. Or you might have to deal with sceptical colleagues that try to hold you back. By developing influencing skills, you will be able to more effectively persuade or convince others to support an idea, agenda, or direction. Your eventual aim may be to inspire others to take actions and motivate them towards achieving collective goals.

However, research has shown that women are generally less influential than men [5] . This effect starts early, even observable in children [6]. This may be due to gender stereotyping of women as warm and friendly, whereas men are stereotyped as competent and knowledgeable; as a result, women are sometimes viewed as not having the right to influence others [7]. As a result, when men express opinions or lead discussions they are more likely to be listened to. Women who express competence on a topic may actually lose influence through their likeability taking a hit [8] . In contrast, women who endorse more traditionally feminine attributes – such as valuing relationships and putting others first – are viewed as more persuasive by men, compared to women who do not affirm their femininity [9] . In short, stereotypes may be holding women back from being truly influential and from having others hear and act upon their leadership.

How to Improve your Personal Influence

 

How, then, can women improve their abilities to influence others?

 

A starting point can be to understand your typical approach to influencing others. If you have not already done so, we recommend that you complete the Managing, Influencing, and Leading Others Survey. Then consider each of the positive influence tactics discussed above (rational persuasion, etc), and set goals to improve your use of these tactics, and to reduce your use of the negative tactics. 

 

In addition, the Center for Creative Leadership (2017) has identified the following strategies for improving persuasion and influencing skills [10], [11]:

Being able to exhibit confidence and professional diplomacy, while at the same time effectively relating to people both internally and externally [12].

Strive to behave in a genuine, straightforward manner and avoid coming off as manipulative, self-serving, or trying to hard.

 

Demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships, roles, and responsibilities within your organization. Use this organizational culture knowledge when making decisions.

Political

Savvy

The process of meeting new people who may be useful to you in developing your career.

 

Networking often occurs through social activities [15].
 

Building a network is important as this greatens your visibility and promotion prospects as an academic.

Networking

 

Presenting oneself as highly competent to other people [13].
 

Speak of yourself in flattering terms; highlight what you are good at and the things that make you unique.

 

Focus on authentic and credible self-promotion: share who you are, what you do, and why you do it in a way that helps other people to see how you might be able to help them in the future.

Avoid being pushy or bragging.

Self-

promotion

Political

Savvy

A variety of concepts and associated terms including social skills, social competence, people skills, face-to-face skills, human skills and soft skills [14].

 

These can help you improve the quality of your interactions with others.

Interpersonal

skills

The process of developing social connections.


Work out who is important to you and maintain a good relationship with them.

 

Carefully listen to them.

 

Build and maintain trust.

 

When you build great relationships, you are more likely to be engaged in your job and satisfied at work.

Relationship

building

The influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve organisational objectives through change [16].

Leadership

The ability to be certain of your abilities or your trust in people, plans, or the future[17].


People take you more seriously when you act confidently. These can help you improve the quality of your interactions with others.

Confidence

More Practical Tips

 

Professor Mark Arthur Reed, a recognized international expert in impact research at Newcastle University, recommends six practical methods that researchers can adopt to make their research more influential [18]:

Develop a structured and systematic strategy for engaging with your key stakeholders.

Give:

 

Be genuine about ensuring that your engagements with others contain something that the other person really wants.

Empathise:

 

Put yourself in the other person’s shoes to find out what motivates them.

Assess your power:

 

Think about your levels of situational, social, personal, and transpersonal power and how this impacts your persuasiveness. 

Practice your communication skills

 

e.g., body language.

Go around or

above obstructive individuals.

Suggested links

Suggested videos 

A TED talk by Shawn King (2016) on how individuals can use positive influence to create change.

A TED talk in which Teresa de Grosbois (2016) identifies several habits of highly influential people that you can use to become influential yourself.

A TED talk by Shawn King (2016) on how individuals can use positive influence to create change.

A TED talk by John Levy (2018), a behavioural scientist who studies human activity, who gives more insight into what makes people influential.

A TED talk by Ron Carucci. Ron has conducted a 10-year longitudinal study, interviewing over 2700 people to find out what it takes to become influential. Hint – it hinges on understanding your business, being a great decision maker, knowing your industry, and forming deep relationships.

  1. Anderson, C., Spataro, S. E., & Flynn, F. J. (2008). Personality and organizational culture as determinants of influence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 702-710. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.702

  2. Yukl, G., & Tracey, J. B. (1992). Consequences of influence tactics used with subordinates, peers, and the boss. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(7), 525-535. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.77.4.525

  3. Noah Goldstein, Steve Martin and Robert Cialdini. Yes!  50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive. (New York:  Free Press, 2008).  p.2, 5 – 6.

  4. Hoffeld Group (unknown). 3 scientifically proven ways to become more influential. Retrieved from: https://www.hoffeldgroup.com/sales-articles/3-scientifically-proven-ways-to-become-more-influential-2/#_ftn4

  5. Carli, L. L. (2001). Gender and social influence. Journal of Social Issues, 57(4), 725-741.

  6. Lockheed, M. E., Harris, A. M., & Nemceff, W. P. (1983). Sex and social influence: Does sex function as a status characteristic in mixed-sex groups of children?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(6), 877-888. 

  7. Ridgeway, C. L. (2001). Gender, status, and leadership. Journal of Social issues, 57(4), 637-655.

  8. Carli, L. L. (1990). Gender, language, and influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 941-951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.5.941

  9. Matschiner, M., & Murnen, S. K. (1999). Hyperfemininity and influence. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23(3), 631-642.

  10. Center for Creative Leadership (2017). 4 keys to strengthen your ability to influence others. Retrieved from https://www.ccl.org/articles/leading-effectively-articles/4-keys-strengthen-ability-influence-others/

  11. Smale, B., & Fowlie, J. (2009). How to succeed at university: An essential guide to academic skills, personal development and employability (2nd edition). London, UK: SAGE Publications Ltd.

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  13. Psychology (n.d.). Self-promotion. Retrieved from https://psychology.iresearchnet.com/social-psychology/self/self-promotion/

  14. Klein, C., DeRouin, R. E., & Salas, E. (2006). Uncovering workplace interpersonal skills: A review, framework, and research agenda. In G. P. Hodgkinson & J. K. Fords (Eds), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 79-126). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing. doi:10.1002/9780470696378.ch3

  15. Networking (n.d.). In Collins Dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.collinsdictionary.com/about

  16. Lussier, R., & Achua, C. (2009). Leadership: Theory, application, & skill development (4th ed.). Mason, OH: SouthWestern Cengage Learning.

  17. Confidence (n.d.). In Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/confidence

  18. Reed, M. (2014, March 6). Six practical ways to make your research more influential. Retrieved from https://www.fasttrackimpact.com/